1.Give the views of Jean-Paul Sartre. He questioned effectiveness of reason and science in understanding the human situation. Individual does everything through choice and absolute freedom exists. He stressed that individuals give meaning to life through their actions.
2.What German philosopher stated that "God is dead" and that "Naked man is living in godless and absurd world"?Nietzsche
3.What philosopher of the early 20th century believed there would be a violent revolution of all workers?Georges Sorrell
4.Who developed the x-ray image as an example of a new technique for examining the human body? Roentgen
5.Why did the new physics cause much scientific controversy in the early twentieth century? It challenged traditional notions of causulity, time, and space.
6.What were teh main discoveries of Albert Einstein? The special theory of relativity in 1905; basic assumptions of classical physics about space and time had to be revised. Mass and energy are interconvertible. He was the father of the greatest scientific development of the 20th century.
7.Who is considered the founder of quantum physics? Max Plank
8.What was one of Sigmund Freud's most sigvificant contributions to twentieth-century thought? Unconscience psychological energy is sexual energy
9.What were the concepts associated with Sigmund Freud? ID, ego, superego, enconscience mind, depression, and significance of dreams.
10.What had the greatest influence on the work of the French Surrealist painters in the period between the First and Second World Wars? Freudian phychology
11.With which artistic movement was Claude Monet associated? impressionism.
12.Describe European art and literature in the 1920's. Demonstrated questioning of accepted values and practices.
13.Who was often considered the "father" of modern psychology?sigmund Freud
14.Within the rise of the environmental movement, who is considered the "father of ecology" because of his theory that everty human act has a consequence in nature? George Perkins Marsh
15.Who expressed the despair of an age with the words-"this is the way the world ends/ Not with a bang but with a wimper:" in his work "The Hollow Men,"? T.S. Elliot
16.What artist was teh best representation of the endless variety and experimentation of twentieth century painting? Pablo Picasso
17.Name a leading innovator of modern architecture who designed truly modern houses. Frank Lloyd Wright
18.Guernica, a vivid and impassioned protest against the Spanish Civil War, was the work of what famous artist? Picasso
19.Name the three main artistic styles that emerged in the Age of Uncertainty? Surrealism, Dadaism, and cubism
20.What was the main topic of authors such as Marcel Proust, James Joyce, and william Faulkner? Complexity and irrationality of human mind.
21.What was Vincent van Gogh's masterpiece The Starry Night an example of? Expressionism
22.what was the appeal of motion pictures in the 1930s? They were a form of excapism and the main entertainment of the masses.
23.to replace the Dual Entente, where did France turn and form a defensive alliance? the Little Entente
24.When the U.s. failed to ratiry the Versailles Treaty, where did many French leaders place their hopes for future security? Strict implementation of the treaty
25.What did France and Belgium do when Germany refused to make its second reparations payment? Occupied the Ruhr district.
26.Give threee examples of attempts for politcal stability of the mid- to late 1920s. Dawes plan, Kellog-Briand pact, locarno treaties
27.How did Britain respond to the Great Depression? Concentrated on domestic market.
28.What did Johm Maynard Keynes's critique of the postwar settlement call for? Complete revision of the Versailles treaty.
29.Describe the condition of Great Britain's national economy in the 1920's? Stagnant manufacturing sector and widening gulf between the righ and poor.
30.Why did French leaders decide to occupy Germanys Ruhr Valley in January 1923? To seize goods as payment for Germany's reparations debt.
31.What was the most notable social effect of the 1023 inflation in Germany? Depletion of savings and income of middle class.
32.What was the major objective of the Kellogg-Briand Pact(1928)? End the use of war for solving international controversies.
33.What was the most conspicuouse democratic innovation after World War I? Women's suffrage in France, Germany, U.S., Britain, and other small European states.
34.The able leader of Germany throughout much of the 1920s was: Streseman
35.What were the results of the Young Plan? Substantial reduction in Germany's reparations payments
36.Identify Mein Kampf "My Struggles" Hitler's political memoirs written largely in prison in the 1920s.
37.Name the leader of the Popular Front in France. Leon Blum
38.What document signaled the interest of the united States in world-wide peace by renouncing war as an instrument of national policy? Kellog Briand pact
39.What group dominated the parliamentary governments of Germany in the mid-to late 1920s? Moderate businessmen
40.what was the "middle way"? Scandinavian response to the Great Depression
41.What had damaged Anglo-French unity after the war? 1)Disagreement over the implementation of the Versailles treaty; 2)British suspicion of French foreign policy; 3)conflict over League of Nations mandates in Middle East.
42.What factors made peace so frail in 1919? Germany's hatred of the treaty of Versailles; France felt fearful and isolated; U.S. isolationism, and British undependable; economic unemployment, desruction, and inflation.
43.What was the Little Entente? The Alliance of Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia, and France.
44.What issues were resolved by the Locarno Treaties? Border between Germany, France, and Belgium.
45.How did the Ruhr crisis effect parliamentary governnment in Germany?Germany saw a rise of radical right under Hitler.
46.Why was economic recovery difficult for France in the 1930s? Lack of stable government; many political parties couldn't agree on how to cope with their depression.